BEFORE Reading Strategies

  • The following strategies are useful to apply BEFORE reading a text in the high school classroom.

    Prediction


    What is it?

    A prediction is an educated guess. It's that simple. But this strategy can be very powerful as it helps readers connect what they know to what they are reading. Readers are like detectives, looking for clues in the text about what may happen next.  

    How it Works

    Encourage readers to stop occasionally to think about what the author has written. Readers could also check the text and images for clues about what might be important.  If using a narrative, ask readers to make logical predictions on what will happen next. If using a poem, speech, or essay, try predicting the themes and main ideas the author will emphasize. Depending on the learner, predictions can be verbalized or written down.  

    Apply an App

    Use Explain Everything to predict. Open a document in the app, add a textbox, and begin typing. There is also a recording feature which will allow for a "talking" note to be saved.

    Brainstorm


    What is it?

    A strategy to ativate priorknowledge and to help the teacher prioritize what needs to be taught.

    How it Works

    Students examine a topic or the title of what they are about to read and list all the information that comes to mind about the topic.  Visual students can also create a web or another graphic representation.  

    Suggestion

    Tell students to use one color for all of their “before” reading facts/opinions theyrecord.  Use another for “during”and a different color for “after” to keep information organized.

    Apply an App

    Guide students to use POPPLET or INSPIRATION LITE to brainstorm.

    Anticipation Guide


    What is it?

    AGs focus on making and checking predictions. They enable students to think ahead to what might be coming in the text while supporting students' evaluation of their own understanding.  It also helps students summarize what was read.   

    How it Works

    1. Teacher determines approximately 7-10 statements based on assigned reading  that students will predict upon. Statements should be copied verbatim from the text. Some should be deliberately written as false. Type them into the Anticipation Guide.
    2. Before reading, students will predict on the statements in the "BEFORE" reading column whether they "agree" or "disagree" with the statement.
    3. Tell students that during and after reading, they should note in the "AFTER" reading column whether the statement is true or false, based on any new knowledge they gained from the reading.
    4. Students can also summarize the evidence that supports their choice of true or false.  

    Extensions

    • Readings can be "jigsawed" and students can be responsible for creating 2-3 statements to accompany text.  *Statements can be compiled and completed as a group activity.
    • False statements can be rewritten as true statements.

    Apply an App

    Have students open up theAnticipation Guide in Notability. They can record predictions on page. During reading, they can check their predictions.

    Word Splash


    What is it?

    Word Splash (Hammond) is both a comprehension and vocabulary strategy that uses pre-reading, during reading, and after reading steps. It is fun and easy to use. A word splash is a collection of terms or concepts from a reading or other activities which students are about to see or hear. Words and terms are "splashed" on a page or overhead, preferably at angles. Students come up with complete statements connecting two or more of the words or phrases. They predict how the words might relate to the reading or activity. Students then read or do the activity. Afterwards, they check their predictions against what is read, heard or viewed.

    How it Works

    1. Students work in pairs. Each will need a reading journal or sheet of notebook paper and a pencil.
    2. As a pre-reading activity, display an overhead that relates to the article to be read. Explain that the words that the students are looking at relate to the article that they will be reading about. Read the words aloud to students.
    3. Tell the students that they need to connect two of the words or phrases together and tell how they might go together in the article. They need to do this for all of the words on the word splash.
    4. The students share with another pair how they think the words will go together in the article. This may also be done as a class discussion with the teacher calling on different students until all words and phrases have been connected.
    5. The students read the articles to learn how the words and phrases are connected in the article and compare the connections with their predictions.
    6. Students now explain how each pair of words is connected in their journals/papers.
    7. Students can then share their findings with the other pair from the pre-reading work. The teacher may also lead a discussIon of how the word/phrases were used.

    Apply an App

    Guide students to use POPPLET or INSPIRATION LITE to make their own Word Splash.

    Character Quote


    What is it?

    This strategy is intended to build background knowledge by introducing students to some of the characters in a book.  The students will read quotes from the various characters and make inferences on pieces of chart paper that can be left on the wall for future reference.

    How it Works

    1. Break students into groups.
    2. Give each group a list of quotes for their character.
    3. Together, the group reads the quotes and makes sure that everyone understands what the quotes are saying.
    4. The group then generates words that describe the character, predict what the character's conflicts are, and come up with reasons for the predictions. This is documented here.
    5. The group transcribes their ideas onto chart paper and posts it on the wall.
    6. When everyone is finished, the groups present their character to the rest of the class.
    7. These charts should be left on the wall so students can consult them during the reading of the book to see if their predictions are correct and to use correct information as possible evidence for ftured discussion or writing.